Posts Tagged Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer Part Four

Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer Part Two Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer Part Three Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer Part Four Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer Part Four Post-enthronement problems      After Cromwell’s enthronement, his time was much taken up by the wars with Roman Catholic Spain, but his elevation, as Queen Christina of Sweden foretold, began to earn respect for him abroad. Thurloe’s State Papers include a letter from the English ambassador in Spain now informing Cromwell that Spain was eager for a treatise between the ‘King of… Full Article

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Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer Part Three

Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer Part Two Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer Part Three Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer Part Four Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer Part Three The New Babel Confusion.      Before Charles was placed in his coffin at Whitehall, it became clear that a number of the judges, now faced with punishment, had refused to sign the death warrant and others had been compelled to sign by force. Cromwell is said to have examined the head of the King at Whitehall to make sure it was totally severed and he was really dead, before saying, ‘If… Full Article

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The Book of Common Prayer -its value and benefits

Lecture III: The Watershed: the Restoration of Uniformity My task and my sources      My task is to present an overview of the 17th century lead-up to the Act of Uniformity of 1662. My primary sources besides the Prayer Book are the Calendar of State Papers; the Common’s Journals: the Thurloe Papers; Gardiner’s Constitutional Documents, Cardwell’s History of Prayer Book Conferences, the Hartlib Papers; Byfield’s Assembly Minutes; Walker’s and Shaw’s records; Evelyn’s and Pepys diaries: Burnet’s, Durie’s, Laud’s, Prynne’s and Fuller’s eye-witness accounts and the Bodleian Library’s Special Collections. My secondary research includes Hooker, Strype, Benton, Huntington, Butler, Parker, Blunt, Tatham,… Full Article

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Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer Part Two

Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer Part Two Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer Part Three Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer Part Four Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer Part Two Cromwell’s swift rise to power      Now sitting firmly in his cavalry saddle in the war against the King and the Church of England, Cromwell was soon reimbursed by Parliament of all his expenses in building up his personal army. Before entering officially into the Civil War, in May, 1641, Cromwell signed a Commons’ vow, ‘To maintain and defend as far as Lawfully I may, with my life,… Full Article

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Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer

Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer Part Two Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer Part Three Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer Part Four Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): Rebel, Republican and Reformer The difficulty of finding an apt title      The most difficult task facing a recorder of Cromwell’s life is finding an apt title for his subject. Whatever positive attribute one finds in Cromwell’s character, and one finds far more than in other great leaders of nations, there are as many shadows and shades present which threaten to subvert them. Cromwell could be all things to different men… Full Article

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The Seventeenth Century: No Time of Reformation

True heroes exchanged for lesser men     Nowadays, at least in Britain, our Reformed churches teach us to take our gaze off the 16th century Reformation and concentrate on the Revolutionary period of the 17th century where, they say, we shall find true Reformation theology. This, they say, was the age of Puritanism, though they define Puritanism in a very limited and often political way. This is advice which would be foolish to follow. The 17th century brought with it a grave departure from the teaching of the Reformation. The British public, government and churches experienced military and moral rebellion, down-grading and back-sliding in religion, fierce intolerance, anarchy in politics, an upsurge of Rationalism, a bawdy… Full Article

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The Troubles at Frankfurt

Lecture given at the Protestant Reformation Society, Regent’s Park College, Oxford, 2007 The Troubles at Frankfurt A Vindication of our Martyrs’ Legacy   The tiny enclave that rescued the Reformation in England      Readers of Asterix will be familiar with a tiny fortress, a mere dot on the map of the Roman Empire, which was to bring Rome to its knees. So much for fairy-tales. Solid fact are better than airy fiction. The real Frankfurt of 1553-59 was also a tiny bastion on the Roman Catholic map which because of its hospitality to the bulk of the Marian refugees, succeeded, by God’s grace, in providing the doctrinal and spiritual power which brought down a more dangerous Rome in Reformation England. Sadly… Full Article

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Contra Spanner, Evans and Johnson

Sir:      I must reject Mr Spanner’s accusations of my alleged inaccuracies concerning a work he has not read. I research each of my letters to the EC carefully, using primary literature. The term ‘shell’ has been used since the 16th cent. for a hollow artillery projectile filled with material intended to explode on landing. Thus Reilly says of Cromwell’s bombardment: “The shells were effectively flung from their barrels to land from above and would explode on impact. The shell itself was a hollow, iron sphere, filled with gunpowder and a slow burning fuse which would detonate as it landed,” p. 60. Reilly also, obviously following Cromwell (Letters CIII-CVII, Carlyle, vol. 2), describes the shelling of Protestant… Full Article

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Demythologising History

     One of several letters to the English Churchman concerning Laudianism in the Commonwealth church. Sir:      Ewan Wilson’s opinions of Britain’s 16-17th century Church and myself are misconceived. Neither exonerating nor mitigating Laud’s failings and guilt, I criticise Laudian intolerance openly wherever it occurs and protest when Wilson attempts to deny Presbyterianism’s greater Laudianism. Mr Wilson fails to see the ambiguity of his original statement concerning ‘evidence of Laud’s satisfactory views on Sovereign Grace and Arminianism’. The word ‘satisfactory’ was Wilson’s (now withdrawn) and could never be mine. If Wilson did his own homework instead of demanding repeatedly that I do his, he… Full Article

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Facts v Spanner’s Opinions

Letter sent to the English Churchman defending criticism of the Cromwell ‘Get Rich Quickly’ Merciless Slaughter in Ireland. Sir:      Mr Spanner would replace my facts with his opinions. If Cromwell believed in religious liberty why did he outlaw the Church of England, rid Parliament of almost half of its reformed members (Presbyterians) and persecute Baptists, Quakers and other Christian denominations? Why did Love, Adams, Featley, Hall, Ward, Balcanqual, Manton, Charnock etc., etc, protest and suffer? Why did Baxter call Cromwell “a vile and detestable creature” and state after Love’s murder, ordered by the Protector, that “most of the ministers and good people of the land, did look upon the new Commonwealth as… Full Article

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